“ One of the most important technologies of behaviour modifiers and applied behaviour
analysts over the last 40 years has been the token economy” – Matson and Boisjoli (2009, p240)
Token Boards are a way to visually track the reinforcement of a given task, it allows the child to know what the reward is and, what behaviours or tasks have to be completed to receive a reward. Token Boards come in all types of forms, Check out our token board section where you can find many different types of free charts, visual token boards, and money token boards, use the one that is appropriate for your child.
WHAT IS A TOKEN ECONOMY?
A token economy is a system of behaviour modification based on the systematic reinforcement of target behaviour. The reinforcers are symbols or ‘tokens’ that can be exchanged for other reinforcers.
Within a home environment, out in the world or in a classroom setting, a token economy provides a system for positive reinforcement by giving the child tokens for behaving in desired ways or for completing clearly identified tasks. For example, getting a pencil and eraser or sitting quietly.
Token economies are used as a method of strengthening a behaviour, or increasing its frequency because the tokens are a way of “paying” children for completing tasks and the children can then use these tokens to buy desired activities or items (Miltenberger, 2008).
How does a Token Economy Work?
The token board is very easy to use and implement. What is nice about Token Boards is the same token board can be used in multiple settings allowing for generalization. The basic principle is a “target behaviour” is identified. The target behaviour is the desired behaviour. This could be not biting, sitting quietly or any chosen behaviour appropriate for the child. The tokens are exchanged when the child engages in the desired behaviour, eventually receiving payment or a reward for displaying the desired behaviour. For example, if the desired behaviour is not hitting, every time the child is not hitting in 15-minute intervals, the child is given a token, eventually earning a desired reward, like a play break for 5 minutes.
There is no predefined definition of what a target behaviour could be, essentially it could be anything. It could be a behaviour that is trying to be diminished like, hitting, biting, wandering or yelling OR it could be saying hello to a teacher, completing academic tasks.
Remember target behaviours are individual and every child will have their own goals. Token economies can be used for not engaging in aggressive behaviours, following classroom rules, academic goal setting amongst others.
Do not take rewards away for a wrong answer or behaviour that is not desired. Token boards should be for POSITIVE reinforcement only.
What is a Back-Up Reinforcer?
A backup reinforcer is an activity, item or privilege that the child likes and enjoys. The token economy works because the tokens become paired with the earning of the backup reinforcers and the child only get tokens for engaging in desired behaviours (Miltenberger, 2008). Therefore the target behaviours (should) occur more often.
What does a Token Economy Chart (or Mat) Look Like?
There are many different types of Token Boards. Able2learn has created FREE creative and engaging token boards for your child. There are several different types of Token Boards.
1. The Money Token Board can be used, not only as positive reinforcement, but to indirectly learn to identify coins, and simple adding.
2. Picture Token Boards can be used, not only to as positive reinforcement, but to learn the parts of an object, and to develop speech.
3. Traditional Token Boards can be used for children who require more simple non-distracting Boards.
MONEY TOKEN BOARD AND BUYING IN A STORE
A choice board can be introduced with the Money Token Boards to introduce the concept of buying with money in a store. Once the child has earned his tokens the child can buy a desired reinforcer. Some reinforcers are included in the package.
How To Put The Token Board Together:
1. Laminate the Token Board.
2. Velcro the tokens and where the tokens will be placed.
YOU CAN DOWNLOAD THE FREE PACKAGE OF MONEY TOKEN BOARDS HERE, THEY COME IN AMERICAN AND CANADIAN CURRENCY. IF YOU WOULD LIKE A TOKEN BOARD SET DONE IN THE CURRENCY OF YOUR HOME COUNTRY PLEASE EMAIL US AT NINA.JAIN@ABLE2LEARN.COM. WE ARE HERE TO HELP!